Features > Security
Access Security Designs

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Can anyone remember how many access points they have to pass through on their work every morning? In our daily lives, we have to pass through a countless number of access points each day.

Today, we will take a look at the types of entry access points at businesses where people spend much of their time from an access security point of view.

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The security access points that we unknowingly pass through at our places of work come in various types and implement many types of security verification methods.

When designing security access pints for businesses, the 2 most important factors to consider are safety and recording logs. First, a design to maintain safety must reflect the business’ intent to protect the people that work at their company.

The image below shows the globally implemented double and single door safety design.

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Fig. 1 Entrance gate safety design (Mitre gate & single gate)

The single door design is meant to allow access for people and the double door design is meant to allow access to people and larger objects.

The image below shows the design of 2 types of exits designed to direct people to the nearest emergency exit in the case of an emergency. The design allows people to get to the emergency exit or stairs as fast as possible.

When there are double doors, the door indicated with a red circle is meant to be used if there are no larger objects that need to pass through the door. The principle behind this design is indicated by the green dotted line and it is meant to direct the flow of human traffic to safety in case of an emergency.

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Fig. 2 Evacuation traffic

The design in this figure reflects the intent to put the safety of people first.

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Let’s next take a look at the security equipment systems needed for recording access logs. Businesses implement security access points for identification authentication and restriction of areas on sites according to the level of security they require.

Security equipment for identification authentication and area restriction transmits access security system logs via electrical signals and data communication. Identification authentication must apply a process to each and every individual that passes the access point and once an individual has successfully been cleared, the next individual must also be subject to the same process without fail. If the access point is not shut after each individual passes, then the system is essentially useless.

The next figure shows a double and single door design that implements a mechanical device to ensure that doors close securely after an individual passes through it.

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Fig. 3 Security devices for the mechanical entrance gate

A door closer is a device that closes double or single doors at a designated amount of pressure after the door has been opened. 2 door closers must be installed on a double door system.

A door coordinator is a device used on a double door that only allows one door to be opened at a time. The implementation of these devices ensures that both double and single door systems are securely closed after they are opened.

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Fig. 4 Door lock

We’ve now taken a brief look at some of the factors that go into collecting data from equipment for identification authentication and area restriction.

Generally, an ID card identification reader or bio-reader (fingerprint, iris, face etc) should first be installed for identification authentication.

These types of readers use network communications to transmit authentication information and individual information to an access security system and an electrical signal is sent to unlock the door. Typically, door locks (figure 4) then also transmit information telling the security system when the door is locked or open.

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Fig. 5 Security devices which need DPDT

The security devices in the image above shut down their power to open the door and send log information to the access security system. These DPDT (Double Pole Double Through) devices are selected and send 2 signals when their switch is activated.

The figure below is a diagram of how a DPDT security device works. When the switch is flipped, 2 signals are sent through 2 different paths. A power off signal and a zero voltage contact signal is sent and logged in the system.

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Fig. 6 DPDT switch & inner wire diagram

We’ve now covered the structure of systems designed to protect people’s safety through monitoring and managing access to entryways, systems designed to direct the flow of traffic in case of an emergency and the collection of data for access logs.

Because these systems use magnetic sensors and mechanical connectivity for detecting the status of access points, they can also be manipulated using magnets and other instruments. This causes weaknesses in security systems.

When this sort of security breach occurs, it is difficult for security personnel to detect. SO, it is sometimes necessary to also install CCTV systems for proper analysis and of evidence that a breach has occurred.

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Fig. 7 Structure of entrance security log monitoring

When these types of access security system designs are implemented, access security log monitoring systems should also be in place. Standard management process receive alerts in their logs through the data acquired from security equipment and software configurations.

Also, when data is omitted from the entry and exit process, security personnel can examine the data and discover abnormalities. And when a security breach occurs, CCTV systems can be used to further investigate the situation.

Written by Taesuk Park, LG CNS

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